Merchant shipping
Trump shipping, and with it the institute of chartering ships, originated in the Mediterranean basin during the early Middle Ages. In those days, charter agreements were concluded in the form…

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The seas and oceans of the planet
The area of ​​the oceans is 71% of the surface area of ​​the Earth. The Southern Ocean is the fourth largest ocean in the Earth surrounding Antarctica. Although the concept…

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Smart solar powered catamaran for exploring the depths of the sea
British researchers are going to study underwater geysers at the bottom of the Celtic Sea, using the innovative “smart” C-Enduro catamaran, powered by solar energy. One of the most poorly…

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Maritime labor market
According to the International Shipping Federation (ISF), more than 1.25 million seafarers representing 150 countries worked in the world navy in 2000, while the Philippines, which supplied about 20% of…

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Other abbreviations
Coordinated Universal Time (FTC Temps Universel Coordonné; UTC) is the standard by which society regulates hours and time. It differs by an integer number of seconds from atomic time and…

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The first Russian Antarctic expedition
One hundred ninety-seven years ago F. F. Bellingshausen wrote in his diary: “It is impossible to express in words the joy that appeared on the faces of all when exclaiming…

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On the certification of sailors of Ukraine
The inclusion of Ukraine in the “white list” requires special responsibility, high professionalism, clarity and coordination in the work without the right to mistake of all structural units involved in…

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